Fraud is a deception deliberately practiced
Fraud is a deception deliberately practiced in order to secure unfair or unlawful gain (adjectival form fraudulent; to defraud is the verb). As a legal construct, fraud is both a civil wrong (i.e., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud and/or recover monetary compensation) and a criminal wrong (i.e., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities). Defrauding people or organizations of money or valuables is the usual purpose of fraud, but it sometimes instead involves obtaining benefits without actually depriving anyone of money or valuables, such as obtaining a drivers license by way of false statements made in an application for the same.
A hoax is a distinct concept
A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving the victim. Contents, 1 As a civil wrong 2 As a criminal offence 3 In non-common law systems By region 4.1 Canada 4.2 United Kingdom 4.2.1 England and Wales and Northern Ireland Serious Fraud Office 4.2.3 National Fraud Authority 4.2.4 CIFAS - The UK's Fraud Prevention Service United States 5 Cost 6 Types of fraudulent acts 7 Anti-fraud movements 8 Detection Notable fraudsters 10 Related 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links